Что такое трд двигатель
Турбореактивный двигатель (ТРД, англоязычный термин — turbojet engine) — Воздушно-реактивный двигатель (ВРД), в котором сжатие рабочего тела на входе в камеру сгорания и высокое значение расхода воздуха через двигатель достигается за счёт совместного действия встречного потока воздуха и компрессора, размещённого в тракте ТРД сразу после входного устройства, перед камерой сгорания. Компрессор приводится в движение турбиной, смонтированной на одном валу с ним, и работающей на том же рабочем теле, нагретом в камере сгорания, из которого образуется реактивная струя. Во входном устройстве осуществляется рост статического давления воздуха за счёт торможения воздушного потока. В компрессоре осуществляется рост полного давления воздуха за счёт совершаемой компрессором механической работы. В камере сгорания производится подвод теплоты. Часть энергии рабочего тела отнимается турбиной. В реактивном сопле формируется реактивная струя.
- 1 Ключевые характеристики
- 1.1 Форсажная камера
- 1.2 Гибридный ТРД / ПВРД
- 1.3 Регулируемые сопла
- 1.4 Область применения
- 1.5 Двухконтурный турбореактивный двигатель
- 1.6 Управление вектором тяги (УВТ) / Отклонение вектора тяги (ОВТ)
- 1.7 ТРДД с высокой степенью двухконтурности / Турбовентиляторный двигатель
- 1.8 Область применения
- 2 Винтовентиляторный двигатель
- 3 Турбовинтовой двигатель (ТВД)
- 3.1 Примечания
Toyota has earned a reputation for its long-lasting, rugged pickups, and part of that famous recipe is familiarity. The company rarely breaks the mold with wild new designs, which is why the 2022 Toyota Tacoma looks a lot like the 2016 model (which also happens to share hard points with a design that dates back to 2005). However, there are a few crucial updates this year that make the mid-size truck better in rugged situations than ever.
Foremost is an enhanced suspension for the 2022 Tacoma TRD Pro, which now enjoys a 1.5-inch front and 0.5-inch rear lift compared to the outgoing flagship. Retuned to take advantage of the new height, the internal-bypass Fox shocks pair with new forged aluminum upper control arms for better control over bumps. In addition to the top-dog TRD Pro, the updated Tacoma Trail Edition brings some off-road capability lower in the lineup. Based on the volume-selling SR5 trim, the Trail gets taller shocks and springs, a standard locking rear differential, and some in-bed cargo boxes, combining versatility with value.
Toyota brought me out to the mountains of Colorado to sample both of these new Tacomas. The midsize pickup lineup soldiers into 2022 with only minor cosmetic, packaging, and technology changes, but that doesn’t mean each member of the family isn’t great fun when the pavement disappears and rocks rise from the forest floor.
|Quick Stats||2022 Toyota Tacoma TRD Pro|
|Output:||278 Horsepower / 265 Pound-Feet|
|0-60 MPH:||7.0 Seconds|
|Top Speed:||131 MPH (est.)|
|Base Price:||$48,640 + $1,215 Destination|
Before talking about how the TRD Pro drives, we gotta address the bright green elephant in the room. The top-spec Toyota Tacoma always gets its own single-year signature color, and for 2022, the bold and the brazen can order their TRDs in Electric Lime Metallic. After the initial shock wears off, Electric Lime is a polarizing color. Its critics – members of our traveling party included – will unfavorably compare it to Gatorade. But I actually really like the green, particularly since it has a lot of bright gold highlights playing on the Tacoma’s burly fender flares. Adding visual interest this year is a TRD Pro logo stamped into the bedside.
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Unfortunately, the eye-catching color makes some performance promises the carryover 3.5-liter V6 engine just can’t deliver. The Tacoma TRD Pro struggles to keep up with traffic, its 278 horsepower and 261 pound-feet smothered by an unresponsive six-speed automatic transmission – a six-speed stick is standard for DIYers. The slushbox (and I do mean slushbox) upshifts far too early for speedy green-light escapes, and it refuses to downshift unless given a heavy flooring. Slotting the gear selector into its sport gate doesn’t help. On-road, the Nissan Frontier’s 310-hp V6 and nine-speed auto are far better at acquiring momentum.
Adding insult to injury is some gritty underhood racket that gives way to a droning TRD performance exhaust. Luckily, the 2022 TRD Pro has a well-controlled highway ride and decent sound insulation that help it compensate somewhat for its patience-taxing engine performance. Those TRD-tuned Fox dampers do a decent job of keeping potholes and gritty pavement at bay, and wind and tire roar are hushed. An eight-way power driver’s seat provides just enough thigh support for my 32-inch inseam, and there’s barely enough headroom under the standard sunroof to keep me from hitting my noggin over big bumps.
Speaking of, the Tacoma TRD Pro is at its absolute best when abandoning pavement altogether. As the midsize pickup family’s off-road flagship, the Pro gets a long list of technology and traction aids that improve grip and stability in a variety of slow, craggy situations. Our long convoy of trucks started its Colorado journey near South Park (yes, that South Park), climbing a long, winding dirt road toward Georgia Pass. For this steep trail, I left my Pro with only the rear axle online, saving four-wheel drive for later in the day.
Even in two-wheel drive, the Taco supreme was a faultlessly surefooted machine. The Fox dampers do a very impressive job of taming body motions at speed on the dirt, and cruising over undulations at about 25 miles per hour was its sweet spot, yomping through big dips without bottoming out or hopping around – credit that added rebound travel. After a few miles of relatively speedy wheeling, our crew slowed to a near-crawl, and we all switched into four-wheel drive. Doing so unlocked use of Toyota’s Multi-Terrain Select (MTS), which tunes the TRD Pro’s throttle and stability controls for sandy and muddy driving.
Slowing even further and facing the ravages of altitude, we all soon clicked over into the transfer case’s low range to give the engine just a bit more torque at the wheels – come to a complete stop, shift into neutral, and push and turn a knob just left of the infotainment system. Set up thus, Crawl Control becomes available, managing braking and throttle at very low speeds to allow the driver to focus on creeping over rocks and logs. Multi-Terrain Select offers three additional modes in 4-Low – loose rock, boulders, and snow – and the locking rear differential becomes available.
More than anything else, that locking axle ascended to superstar status, allowing me to creep through loose shale with zero drama. Surprisingly enough, the Tacoma also doesn’t lose much in the way of maneuverability when locked up, making tight forest corners without much protest. Crawl Control still seems a bit gimmicky to me, with too many actuator noises and too little driver involvement to be fun. There are videos of the drive system unsticking trucks that are buried in a foot of sand, so it definitely has a use – I just didn’t really test its mettle in two days of Rocky Mountain off-roading.
Even so, the Tacoma TRD Pro is a near-perfect travel companion on some of Georgia Pass’ more difficult trails and lines. In both MTS’ Rock and Loose Rock modes, throttle response is blunt, which allows the driver to dial in just the right amount of torque to get the vehicle moving (but not so much that it loses traction in a flurry of wheelspin). And a run up a much more technical out-and-back trail proved that the top-spec off-roader’s 9.4 inches of ground clearance and 36.4-degree approach, 24.7-degree departure, and 26.6-degree breakover angles are more than enough for even the most strenuous mountain trails.
Overall, the 2022 Tacoma TRD Pro is incrementally better than the outgoing vehicle, with improved suspension composure (both around town and on dirt) and better geometry. It’s not so drastic a difference as to make 2021 owners feel like they’re missing out, but these steady improvements are what help keep Toyota at the top of the off-road heap. I wish it weren’t so restrictive in terms of its software – locking that rear differential in either two-wheel drive or 4-high would be a nice feature, for example (and one the Ford Ranger allows). But the top-dog Tacoma is still sure to impress those looking for Toyota’s best off-road hardware.
|Quick Stats||2022 Toyota Tacoma SR5|
|Output:||278 Horsepower / 265 Pound-Feet|
|0-60 MPH:||7.0 Seconds|
|Top Speed:||131 MPH (est.)|
|Base Price:||$35,655 + $1,215 Destination|
|As-Tested Price:||$40,635 (est.)|
Hitting The Trail In The Trail Edition
On the other hand, anyone on a tighter budget should definitely put the Tacoma Trail Edition on their shopping list. Based on the $35,655 SR5 model, the Trail Edition is only available in crew-cab, short-bed form with standard four-wheel drive and an automatic transmission.
The $3,765 Trail Edition package adds a 1.1-inch front and 0.5-inch rear suspension lift and a locking rear differential to the mix, as well as a pair of storage compartments to the inside of the bed (the driver-side one is even able to function as a cooler). A bold TOYOTA-script front grille and bronze badging and wheels set the Trail apart too. All that gear comes with a total cost of $40,635 including the $1,215 destination charge, which is confusingly more money than a mechanically similar 2021 TRD Off-Road (though that vehicle sits a bit lower to the ground). As such, Toyota’s “entry-level” off-roader is a bit of a noodle scratcher.
Lacking Crawl Control or Multi-Terrain Select, the Trail is simpler to just jump in and drive, and there’s no denying the advantages of its added ground clearance. Still, it doesn’t work quite as well on the trails as either the slow-speed–friendly TRD Off-Road or flagship TRD Pro. On a long incline littered with loose rock and shale, the Trail Edition definitely required more finesse to keep moving.
There may have been something wrong with the pre-production locking rear differential, and since we’ve never had such issues on other Tacomas, we’re willing to withhold final judgement until we’ve driven a series-production Trail Edition. But even with an open diff, the Trail still found its way through the steep scree field, its stability and traction controls sending power to the wheels that had grip.
The lifted suspension was another boon to off-roading, opening up the same 9.4 inches of ground clearance as the TRD Pro (though the Trail’s respective approach, departure, and breakover angles of 34.0, 23.6, and 26.4 degrees are down a bit on its more robust sibling). The shock absorbers were obviously less capable of handling bumps than those of the TRD Pro, with a few surprising bottom-outs through big dips in the road at speed. However, over larger rocks and at slower speeds, there was little to complain about.
Unfortunately, my tester was saddled with the same recalcitrant engine and transmission combo as its TRD Off-Road and Pro siblings, and its cloth-upholstered interior is a touch more spartan – no 360-degree camera system or heated seats, and you start the truck with an old-fashioned key. But those elements add to the Trail’s charm, removing features you don’t need without sacrificing much ruggedness. Toyota seems to think the Trail Edition is perfect for folks who already know how to off-road and don’t need the electronic nannies to step in and take over.
Still, it’s a bit hard to stomach the idea of a more expensive, less well-equipped pickup compared to a $38,745 TRD Off-Road, whose Bilstein suspension is nearly perfectly tuned even if it lacks the Trail’s added altitude. Those with Luddite tendencies would perhaps be better served with a base, $36,870 SR5 model fitted with the $1,450 TRD accessory lift kit. Though it wouldn’t have the bronze badging, wheels, or bed cubbies of the Trail Edition, such a vehicle would likely scratch that budget-friendly lifted-pickup itch at a price of $38,320 plus installation.
Like every 2021 Camry, the TRD receives a new floating touchscreen infotainment display that puts the controls a tad closer to passengers, and helps decrease glare on the relatively small 7-inch screen. Buttons and knobs flanking the screen enable easy access to the commonly used menus and stereo adjustments, while the touchscreen’s layout is easy to navigate. Unfortunately, the system has a noticeable delay when changing between menus.
A floating infotainment screen is new for 2021.
Standard features include a six-speed sound system, satellite radio, Bluetooth, a Wi-Fi hotspot and both Apple CarPlay and Android Auto connectivity. If you’re an audiophile, you can option out your Camry TRD with a nine-speaker JBL audio system for an additional $1,585.
On the active safety front, the TRD gains standard blind-spot monitoring and rear cross-traffic alert for 2021 in addition to an improved Toyota Safety Sense 2.5 Plus package. Forward-collision warning can now pick up bicyclists and is better at detecting pedestrians in low-light situations. Adaptive cruise control, automatic emergency braking, lane-departure warning and road sign assist are also included.
2021 Toyota Camry
2021 Toyota Camry Starting Price: $24,970 | Price Yours or View listings near you
Above Average: All-wheel drive available: choice of powertrains including a V6; a reputation for solid reliability, and resale.
Below Average: No plug-in hybrid model.
Consensus: The 2021 Toyota Camry is one of the most popular and one of the most recommendable sedans on the market. The latest redesign brings sharper looks and much-improved road manners.
K5 vs. Camry: Affordable sedans with plenty of options
Brand-new for 2021 and replacing the Kia Optima, the 2021 K5 is a strong competitor right out of the gate in the midsize sedan segment. The base engine is a 1.6-liter turbocharged 4-cylinder, which may seem small, but it provides plenty of low-end torque to keep the K5 moving. The 8-speed transmission works to keep fuel economy reasonable, while an optional Sport mode adds driving fun. A higher trim called the GT-Line adds some sporty looks and 18-inch wheels, while the GT model includes a 2.5-liter turbo making 290 horsepower, sent through a dual-clutch 8-speed automatic.
We love the outside’s sharp looks, particularly the headlights and the fastback look, and the interior is a very nice place to be, with seats that are both comfortable and supportive and a futuristic-looking instrument panel and infotainment system. Wireless Apple CarPlay is standard, as is automatic emergency braking. All models also come with driver attention warning, lane-departure warning and lane-keeping assist, automatic high beams, and lane-following assist. We wish the blind-spot warning and rear cross-traffic avoidance was standard in all trims, particularly because of the large C-pillar. All models except the base can be had with AWD, although unlike with the Optima, there is no hybrid variant.
The 2021 Camry’s combination of good looks, decent driving dynamics, pricing, options, and Toyota’s reputation for safety and reliability have made it an incredibly popular sedan. For 2021, the Camry gets a light exterior refresh and debuts Toyota Safety Sense 2.5+ plus an updated infotainment system. Sure, it’s still a Camry, so it doesn’t really push any limits, but Toyota now offers it in an AWD variant.
It also comes in a hybrid version, should you want to save a little at the gas pump, and a V6 model, making it the only sedan left to offer that engine. The Camry has always been comfortable and compliant on the road. There’s also a TRD performance version, as well. The Camry comes standard with Toyota’s suite of safety tech and driver assistance aids.
Roomy sedans with lots of comfort.
2021 Kia K5 Advantages
Lower starting price; longer warranty.
2021 Toyota Camry Advantages
Excellent resale and reliability; hybrid option.
Our experts ranked the 2021 Kia K5 slightly higher than the 2021 Toyota Camry giving it 4.7 stars out of five versus the Camry’s 4.6 stars. Either vehicle is a really good bet. The only dividing factor would be if you want a hybrid powertrain. The Camry offers that option, while the K5 does not.
Ready to buy a Kia K5 or Toyota Camry? Shop for one on sale now near you.
- Still is muscular and tough
- Capable 4×4 variant
- After-sales service
- Quality of materials inside
- Cumbersome to manoeuvre in tight spaces
- Inherent body roll
The Fortuner is that seven-seater SUV that does everything. It now looks even more upmarket and imposing with the updates. And with a proven track record and dependability on the Toyota brand, customers only have more reasons to buy it than avoid it.
The big SUV craze has caught up with almost every manufacturer here. Now, even luxe brands are meeting consumer demand with it. Plenty of them want to have an SUV in their portfolio, and the ones who already have it, are bringing in tweaks or updates to the existing ones. The Toyota Legender is also one such example that is based on the Fortuner SUV and boasts few enhancements. Here, we list out the advantages and disadvantages of the same, for you to gauge if these are worth the premium the carmaker is asking for.
1. Dressed to the teeth
The Legender has managed to grab some attention even if it’s more or less like the Fortuner. All thanks to its remodelled bumpers, new headlamp clusters with quad LEDs, DRLs, sequential LED indicators, and new alloys. You’ve got to admire its on-road presence and eye-catching design that helps it stand out from the crowd.
And Toyota hasn’t changed much of the Fortuner’s interior, save for features like wireless smartphone charging, ventilated seats, powered tailgate, and more. A horse-high view, high seating position, and big windshield like the Fortuner give a commanding position. Then, the interior trim is revised with black leather, red accents, and some smooth materials to make it feel a notch more premium. This has helped strike an optimal balance of sportiness and a premium feel.
2. New vigour
An increased power output was expected with the Fortuner facelift, and the carmaker provided it. In fact, the Legender is also powered by an updated 2.8-litre turbo diesel engine, which is tweaked to the tune of churning out 201bhp and 500Nm of torque. This is up from the 175bhp and 420Nm power output the current Fortuner offers. With more power, the engine has gotten better now as it feels more responsive. And there’s no abrupt surge or boost in power, but it builds up nice and smoothly. If you plan to fill your Legender’s seven seats or often do plenty of long journeys, this frugal and smooth engine is well-suited for the job. The SUV is fast enough to cope with traffic and cruise along happily at triple-digit highway speeds. Even if the vehicle is not the most agile, its engine feels quite refined and with its mile-munching capabilities, makes for an excellent cruiser.
3. Convenience of an automatic
While the regular version of the Fortuner is available with a six-speed manual or automatic, this Legender comes equipped only with a six-speed automatic to give your left leg rest in heavy traffic. This torque converter transmission is a tried-and-tested gearbox that is fairly smooth and actually competent. It never feels lethargic and unresponsive and responds to commands considerably well. It’s tuned rather well as you don’t need to keep modulating the throttle input in bumper-to-bumper traffic and it creeps ahead discreetly. Apart from feeling it downshift a gear or two when you floor the accelerator pedal, the transmission continues doing its work effortlessly. Nevertheless, there are paddle-shifters if you feel the need of taking over the gear changes whenever you want.
4. That invincible feel
Most ladder chassis vehicles are robust and exceptionally strong. They are considered to be long-serving horses and the Fortuner is one SUV that has always had this trait. It is still one amongst the body-on-frame SUVs that have a tough build and owners have used them for years. Its tough build, load-bearing capacity, rugged nature, and more, have given it commendable long-term reliability. This goes on to lend it a good resale value as well, which stands true even for the previous-gen Fortuners in our market.
5. Brand and service contentment
The Toyota brand has been catering to the myriad demands, aspirations, and needs of its customers with the focus always being on delivering the highest ‘Customer Satisfaction’. In fact, the service motto of Toyota Kirloskar Motor has been ‘Customer First’, and hence they have been able to gain the trust of their consumers. The Legender also is backed by Toyota’s exceptional after-sales service quality, low service costs with extended warranty coverage, all that leading to hassle-free ownership experiences.
While the ex-showroom launch price of the diesel 4×2 model of the Fortuner starts at Rs 32.48 lakh, the Legender sits right at the top-of-the-line with a price tag of Rs 37.58 lakh. Current on-road prices have increased quite a lot, and potential buyers will certainly not appreciate this. And, not only is the price hike quite high, but even the difference between the two feels quite a lot as not many upgrades have been made. In fact, there’s no big difference in the interior craftsmanship of this and the Fortuner. And nothing very exquisite as well. The interior quality of materials, touch, and feel is the same. It doesn’t feel as rich or a worthy upgrade for more than Rs 40 lakh on-road price that you’ll pay. On the other hand, the Fortuner does provide almost all that’s required, in fact, even comes with a 4×4 system at a slightly lesser price.
2. Only single trim available
Now, having a diesel mill is fine if your mileage is quite high, but then, if short trips around town are more of your thing, a petrol version is more suitable and cheaper to buy. Unfortunately, you’ll not be able to pick one as the Legender is a diesel model only. Then, it cannot be had with the choice of a manual gearbox or even an optional 4WD. Another limitation is that prospective buyers cannot choose any other exterior or interior shade apart from this pearl white exterior with a dual-tone black and maroon interior.
Eventually, it’s all about buyers getting over the fact that the Legender is much the same SUV as the Fortuner that costs a bit less. And for that premium that they pay more, they do get a little more exclusivity. After all, the Legender is also a good people-carrier, has a spacious cabin, with room for seven on-board, and does look a little sleeker and more stylish than its elder cousin.